of Second and Primary Language Acquisition Terms
|Additive Model/Common Underlying Proficiency
||Theory that both acquisition of first and
second languages can contribute to underlying language proficiency. Experiences with both
languages, according to Cummins, promote the development of the proficiency underlying
both languages, given adequate motivation and exposure to both, within school or the wider
environment. SUP (Separate Underlying Proficiency) approach indicates that no such
relationship/synergy exists between L1 and L2 language
||Optimal input occurs when the "affective
filter" is low (Krashen, 1982). The affective filter is a screen of emotion that can
block language acquisition or learning if it keeps the users from being too self-conscious
or too embarrassed to take risks during communicative exchanges.
|Audio-Lingual Method (Skinner and others)
||Non-communicative approach that involves heavy
use of mimicry, imitation and drill. Speech and not writing is emphasized. It is perhaps
unfair to associate this approach with B.F. Skinner whose theories would in no way
preclude a communicative approach to second language acquisition instruction.
||Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
(BICS) are those that are cognitively-undemanding and include known ideas, vocabulary and
syntax. They are the aspects of communication that are used daily in routine communicative
exchanges (e.g., while dressing, eating, bathing, playing, etc.). BICS skills represent
the informal aspects of social talk as well as skills that do not require a high degree of
cognition (e.g., naming objects and actions, referring to non-existence, disappearance,
rejection, and negation, and so forth). Students demonstrating BICS might recognize new
combinations of known words or phrases and produce single words or short phrases. When
students begin to acquire a second language, they are typically able to develop BICS
within 2-3 years. Most importantly, Cummins cautioned that students should not be
placed in learning situations in which a second language (L2) is used just because they
have adequate L2 BICS.
Advisory Committee (BAC)
||Site level committee composed of parents,
teachers and others that monitors schools bilingual/ESL programs. Required if site has >= 21
Education Act (Title V11)
||Compensatory program to support education
programs, train teachers/aides, develop and disseminate instructional materials and
encourage parental involvement in bilingual/ESL education. In 1970 the Office of Civil
Rights (OCR) informed school districts with more than 5% national origin-minority students
that they must provide some kind of special language instruction for LEP
students. The OCR also prohibited the assignment of students to classes for the
handicapped on the basis of English language skills; prohibited placing students in
vocational tracks instead of teaching them English and mandated that administrators
communicate with parents in a language they can understand.
||A person who is skilled to some degree in two
languages. This might be someone who speaks two languages (e.g., English and Spanish)
||Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, or CALP. CALP takes much longer that BICS to develop; usually about 5-7
years. CALP skills are those that are necessary for literacy obtainment and academic
success. CALP enables students to have academic, analytical conversation and to
independently acquire factual information. CALP is used to use information acquired to
find relationship, make inferences, and draw conclusions.
Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
||Instructional approach that provides explicit
teaching of learning strategies within academic subject areas. Strategies are divided into
three major categories: (1) Metacognitive (planning, self-monitoring, classifying, etc.);
(2) Cognitive (note taking, summarizing, making inferences, self-reflection, etc.) and (3)
Social-affective (Asking questions, cooperative learning, peer tutoring, etc.).
||Teaching approach where negotiation for
meaning is critical. The teacher becomes a facilitator. Collaborative learning and peer
interaction is important. Students and teacher select and organize curriculum contents.
||Input + 1/Zone of Proximal Development-
Input/instruction that is just above the students abilities. Instruction that is embedded
in a meaningful context, modified (paraphrasing, repetition), collaborative/ interactive
|Cultural Adaptation/Culture Shock Cycle
||Model of what happens when a person is
introduced into a new culture and then must return to their home culture. Stages include:
(1) Pre-departure anxiety; (2) Arrival honeymoon; (3) Initial culture shock; (4) Surface
adjustment; (5) Mental isolation; (6) Return anxiety and (8) Re-entry culture shock.
Classification of Language and Content activities.
||Divided activities/modes of instruction and
learning along two continuums (context embedded/reduced and academic and cognitively
demanding /undemanding). Instruction should progress from context embedded/academically
non-demanding to context reduced/academically demanding. Teacher should be aware of where
his instruction falls and how it is relating to the needs of his students who may be in
various stages of language acquisition and development.
||Non-communicative method that involves
exclusive use of target/L2 language, uses a step by step progression of material and
considers correct translation to be very important.
|District Bilingual Advisory Committee
||Required if district has >= 51 LEP students. Monitors District bilingual/ESL programs.
||English Language Development
||Each student with a home language other than
English must be assessed in English within 30 days of enrollment.
|Enlightened Eclecticism (Wilga Rivers)
approach that pulls from a variety of methods.
(English as a Second Language)
||As distinguished from true Bilingual
education, ESL emphasizes the submersion /submersion + ESL/pullout approach and where the
goal is early transition. Instruction in English is looked upon as remedial.
||A theory or hypothesis, about the organization
of language in the mind of speakers of that language--the underlying knowledge that
permits understanding and production of language.
||This is a non-communicative approach that
relies heavily on reading and translation, mastery of grammatical rules and accurate
Language Survey (HLS)
||Form completed by parents/guardians that gives
information about a students language background. Must be on file for every LEP
||Communicative approach that focuses on the
whole learner, starts with the individual then expands to group and includes music, art
and physical activity.
||Bilingual program similar to double or two-way program. Sometimes also used to describe a program where L1 students are given academic instruction in a non-native language for
||Optimal input must be at a level slightly
above that of the learner. Krashen labeled this concept "input + 1". To explain
this principle, Krashen uses an analogy of an English speaker trying to comprehend Spanish
from a radio program. Those of us who have a beginner's ability to speak Spanish and who
have listened to a Spanish radio broadcast know how frustrating (and incomprehensible) it
can be to try to attend to input that is just too complex and that lacks a visible context
from which we can deduce clues.
|Language Acquisition Theory (Krashen and others)
||Acquisition and learning are two separate
processes. Learning is knowing about a language (formal knowledge). Acquisition is the
unconscious process that occurs when language is used in real conversation.
Language Acquisition Theory embodies the following hypotheses:
- Natural Order: Natural progression/order of language development
exhibited by infants/young children and/or second language learners (child or adult). (PEPSI)
- Monitor: Learning (as opposed to acquisition) serves to develop a
monitor- an error detecting mechanism that scans utterances for accuracy in order to make
corrections. As a corollary to the monitor hypothesis, language acquisition instruction
should avoid emphasis on error correction and grammar. Such an emphasis might inhibit
language acquisition, particularly at the early stages of language development.
- Input: Input needs to be comprehensible .
- Affective Filter
||LAS O/R/W (See definition above)
Basic Inventory of natural Language (BINL)
Idea Oral Proficiency (IPT)
Quick Start in English (QSE)
Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey (WML)
|Language Diagnostic Assessment Notification Letter
||Letter sent to parents/guardians of students
"diagnosed" as LEP informing them of the test results and the
type of instruction their children will receive.
||Language Assessment Scales. State approved
assessment test to determine language status and appropriate placement for LEP students.
English LAS: LAS-Oral and LAS Read/Write
Spanish LAS Oral and LAS Read/Write
|Lau v. Nichols
||Supreme Court case where the Court ruled that,
"There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students the same facilities,
textbooks, teachers and curriculum, for students who do not understand English are
effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education". Also: Lau remedies.
||Limited English Proficient Students
||Bilingual program whose goal is to maintain
English learners native language and culture. Students are encouraged to be
proficient in English and their native tongue.
||The study of the meaning units in a language
|Natural Approach (Terrell and Krashen)
approach that: (1) Takes into account PEPSI; (2) Uses comprehensible input; (3) Stresses low affective filter and (4) Uses meaningful, authentic
||Pioneered cognitive/gestalt approach to
understanding language acquisition. Mind contains Language Acquisition Device that
generates rules through the unconscious acquisition of grammar.
||Bilingual program where native English
speakers do not receive instruction in the native language of the English learners.
|Phase or Stage
||Periods of development that are typically used
in discussion of language ability instead of ages to refer to a child's process.
||The study of the sound patterns of a language.
||The general study of how context affects the
users interpretation of language.
||The language of most benefit in learning new
and difficult information.
||Every LEP student must be
assessed for primary language proficiency within 90 calendar days of enrollment.
||Developmental progress of LEP students is
reviewed annually. FEP (Fluent English Proficiency) redesignation will occur based on the
- Teacher recommendation
- Oral English Fluency (LAS-O and other assessment tests)
- Reading/Writing (LAS R/W and other assessment
- Student writing sample
- CTBS score of 36 percentile or greater in reading, language and math)
||The study of meanings of individual words and
or larger units such as phrases and sentences.
approach that makes learner responsible for own learning and makes extensive use of
Cuisenare rods, color-coding and other manipulatives.
|SOLM (Student Oral Language Observation Matrix)
||Form designed to help teachers assess oral
language skills of students.
Designated Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)
||Academic, subject area instruction that takes
into account the special needs of LEP and other students by fostering:
- Active student participation
- Social interaction
- Integrated oral and written language
- Authentic books and tasks
- Adequate coverage of background knowledge required to master a topic
(vocabulary, key concepts, etc.).
|Stages of Language Development (PEPSI)
||Level 1: Pre-Production Stage (Silent Period):
Minimal comprehension, no verbal production.
Level II: Early
Production Stage. Limited Comprehension; One/two-word response.
Level III: Speech Emergence Stage. Increased comprehension; Simple
sentences; Some errors in speech.
Level IV: Intermediate Fluency Stage. Very good comprehension; More
complex sentences; Complex errors in speech.
||Sink or swim approach to ELD
instruction. L2 students are placed in the same classes as L1
students and required to learn as much as they can.
|Submersion + ESL
||English learners are given a separate ESL class for a prescribed period of time,
usually one hour per day. The rest of the day is spent in classes with L1 learners
approach that uses Baroque music (in the session phase of a lesson) and stresses a
welcoming atmosphere and natural settings. A Suggestopedia lesson may have three phases:
(1) Presession; (2) Session and (3) Postsession.
||The study of the sentence patterns of a
language and rules that govern the correctness of a sentence.
|Total Physical Response (TPR) (James Asher)
approach where students respond with actions, not words first. Instruction is concrete
and can be introductory to reading/writing experiences.
||Bilingual program whose goal is to help
English learners ultimately adjust to an all English educational program. May be
early-exit ( 2nd grade) or late-exit (6th grade).
||Bilingual program where L2 learners
receive L1 instruction and L1 students receive L2 instruction. To be
effective program must:
- Allow for development of CALP
- Optimal input in both languages.
- Focus on academic subjects.
- Integrate the curriculum.
- Allow for monolingual instruction for sustained periods.
- Have home-school collaboration
- Empower students as active learners.
- Make sufficient use of minority language.